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His diary was full of references to the Yiddish writers. I had hardly anything in common with myself and should stand very quietly in a corner.
I am content that I could breathe". Hawes suggested that Kafka, though very aware about his own Jewishness did not incorporate it into his work which according to Hawes lacked Jewish characters, scenes or themes.
His protagonist, Josef K. He stood for the 'guiltless guilt' that imbued the Jew in the modern world, although there was no evidence that he himself was a Jew".
In his essay, Sadness in Palestine?! The truth lied in some very elusive place between these two simplistic poles". Livia Rothkirchen called Kafka the "symbolic figure of his era".
According to Rothkirchen, "This situation lent their writings a broad cosmopolitan outlook and a quality of exaltation bordering on transcendental metaphysical contemplation.
An illustrious example was Franz Kafka". Toward the end of his life, Kafka sent a postcard to his friend, Hugo Bergman in Tel Aviv, announcing his intention to emigrate to Palestine.
Bergman refused to host Kafka because he had young children and was afraid that Kafka would infect them with tuberculosis. Kafka's laryngeal tuberculosis worsened and in March , he returned from Berlin to Prague  where the members of his family, principally his sister, Ottla took care of him.
He went to Dr. Hoffmann's sanatorium in Kierling just outside Vienna for treatment on April 10  and died there on June 3, The cause of death seemed to be starvation: The condition of Kafka's throat made eating too painful for him and since parenteral nutrition was not yet developed, there was no way to feed him.
He rose to fame rapidly after his death,  particularly after World War II. The Kafka tombstone was designed by architect Leopold Ehrmann.
What little was published during his lifetime attracted scant public attention. Kafka finished none of his full-length novels and burned around 90 percent of his work   and much of it during the period that he lived in Berlin with Diamant who helped him burn the drafts.
Kafka's earliest published works are eight stories which appeared in in the first issue of the literary journal, Hyperion under the title, Betrachtung Contemplation.
He wrote the story, " Beschreibung eines Kampfes " "Description of a Struggle" [c] in He showed it to Brod in who advised him to continue writing and convinced him to submit it to Hyperion.
Kafka published a fragment in  and two sections in the spring of , all in Munich. In a creative outburst on the night of September 22, , Kafka wrote the story, "Das Urteil" "The Judgment", literally: It dealt with the troubled relationship of a son and his dominant father, facing a new situation after the son's engagement.
The story began with a traveling salesman waking to find himself transformed into a ungeheures Ungeziefer , a monstrous vermin , Ungeziefer being a general term for unwanted and unclean animals.
The critics regarded the work as one of the seminal works of fiction of the 20th century. The story, " Ein Hungerkünstler " "A Hunger Artist" , published in the periodical Die neue Rundschau in described a victimized protagonist who experienced a decline in the appreciation of his strange craft of starving himself for extended periods.
He began his first novel in During , Kafka began the novel, Der Process The Trial ,  the story of a man arrested and prosecuted by a remote, inaccessible authority with the nature of his crime revealed neither to him or to the reader.
Kafka did not complete the novel, although he finished the final chapter. The same nervous attention to minute particulars; the same paranoid awareness of shifting balances of power and the same atmosphere of emotional suffocation—combined, surprisingly enough with moments of boyish ardor and delight.
However, he did not begin writing it until January 27, Kafka's intent was that the castle's authorities notified K.
Rastalsky noted in his thesis: Kafka's stories are initially published in literary periodicals. His first eight are printed in in the first issue of the bi-monthly Hyperion.
Eine Geschichte von Franz Kafka. A Story by Franz Kafka. Kafka left his work, both published and unpublished to his friend and literary executor , Max Brod with explicit instructions that it should be destroyed on Kafka's death.
He took many papers which remained unpublished with him in suitcases to Palestine when he fled there in These are confiscated by the Gestapo in , but the scholars continued to search for them.
As Brod published the bulk of the writings in his possession,  Kafka's work began to attract wider attention and critical acclaim. Brod found it difficult to arrange Kafka's notebooks in chronological order.
One problem was that Kafka often began writing in the different parts of the book; sometimes in the middle, sometimes working backwards from the end.
For example, Kafka left Der Process with unnumbered and incomplete chapters and Das Schloss with incomplete sentences and ambiguous content;  Brod rearranged chapters, copy edited the text and changed the punctuation.
Der Process appeared in in Verlag Die Schmiede. Kurt Wolff published two other novels, Das Schloss in and Amerika in The book appeared in the Gustav Kiepenheuer Verlag.
Brod's sets are usually called the "Definitive Editions". Fischer Verlag republished them. Jost Schillemeit was the editor of Der Verschollene Amerika published in These are called the "Critical Editions" or the "Fischer Editions".
When Brod died in , he left Kafka's unpublished papers which are believed to number in the thousands to his secretary, Esther Hoffe.
A court battle began in between the sisters and the National Library of Israel which claimed that these works became the property of the nation of Israel when Brod emigrated to British Palestine in Auden called Kafka "the Dante of the twentieth century".
The guilt induced in the son was resolved through suffering and atonement. Kafka also touched on the theme of human conflict with bureaucracy.
William Burroughs claimed that such work was centered on the concepts of struggle, pain, solitude and the need for relationships. A quest, metaphysical in nature for God.
They argued that Kafka's work was more deliberate and subversive and more joyful than they first appear. They pointed out that reading the Kafka work while focusing on the futility of his characters' struggles revealed Kafka's play of humor.
He was not necessarily commenting on his own problems, but rather pointing out how people tended to invent problems. In his work, Kafka often created malevolent, absurd worlds.
The writer, Milan Kundera suggested that Kafka's surrealist humor may have been an inversion of Dostoyevsky's presentation of characters who are punished for a crime.
In Kafka's work, a character was punished although a crime was not committed. Kundera believed that Kafka's inspirations for his characteristic situations came both from growing up in a patriarchal family and living in a totalitarian state.
The attempts are made to identify the influence of Kafka's legal background and the role of law in his fiction. These are hidden from the individual, but controlled the lives of the people who are innocent victims of systems beyond their control.
Enclosed in my own four walls, I found myself as an immigrant imprisoned in a foreign country. I saw my family as strange aliens whose foreign customs, rites and very language defied comprehension, though I did not want it, they forced me to participate in their bizarre rituals.
I could not resist. However, James Hawes argued that many of Kafka's descriptions of the legal proceedings in Der Process —metaphysical, absurd, bewildering and nightmarish as they might appear are based on accurate and informed descriptions of German and Austrian criminal proceedings of the time which are inquisitorial rather than adversarial.
Knopf in the United States. Later editions, notably those of Dearest Father. Stories and Other Writings included the text, translated by Eithne Wilkins and Ernst Kaiser  which was deleted by the earlier publishers.
These translations are generally accepted to have a number of biases and are considered to be dated in interpretation.
Glatzer 's selected writings,  drawn from notebooks, diaries, letters, short fictional works and the novel, Der Process. Kafka often made extensive use of a characteristic particular to the German language which permitted long sentences that sometimes could span an entire page.
Kafka's sentences delivered an unexpected impact just before the full stop. This was the finalizing meaning and focus.
This was due to the construction of subordinate clauses in German which required that the verb should be positioned at the end of the sentence.
Such constructions are difficult to duplicate in English so it was up to the translator to provide the reader with the same Or at least equivalent effect found in the original text.
Als Gregor Samsa eines Morgens aus unruhigen Träumen erwachte, fand er sich in seinem Bett zu einem ungeheuren Ungeziefer verwandelt.
As Gregor Samsa one morning from restless dreams awoke, found he himself in his bed into an enormous vermin transformed.
Literal word-for-word translation . Another difficult problem that the translators are facing was how to deal with the author's intentional use of ambiguous idioms and words that had several meanings which resulted in phrasing that was difficult to translate precisely.
The English translators often rendered the word Ungeziefer as "insect". In Middle German, however, Ungeziefer literally meant "an animal unclean for sacrifice".
Kafka had no intention of labeling Gregor, the protagonist of the story as any specific thing, but instead wanted to convey Gregor's disgust at his transformation.
Literally, Verkehr meant intercourse and as in English could have either a sexual or non-sexual meaning. In addition, it was used to mean transport or traffic.
The sentence could be translated as: Unlike many famous writers, Kafka was rarely quoted by others. Instead, he was noted more for his visions and perspective.
Coetzee and Jean-Paul Sartre. Salinger loved to read Kafka's works. It impacted visual arts, music and popular culture. Kafka wrote in an aloof manner full of legal and scientific terms.
Yet, his serious universe also had insightful humor, all highlighting the "irrationality at the roots of a supposedly rational world". Much of the post-Kafka fiction, especially science fiction followed the themes and precepts of Kafka's universe.
This could be seen in the works of authors such as George Orwell and Ray Bradbury. The following are examples of works across a range of literary, musical and dramatic genres which demonstrated the extent of cultural influence:.
The examples included instances which bureaucracies overpowered people often in a surreal, nightmarish milieu which evoked the feelings of senselessness, disorientation and helplessness.
The characters in a Kafkaesque setting often lacked a clear course of action to escape from a labyrinthine situation. The Kafkaesque elements often appeared in existential works, but the term transcended the literary realm to apply to real-life occurrences and situations that are incomprehensibly complex, bizarre or illogical.
Numerous films and television works are described as Kafkaesque and the style was particularly prominent in dystopian science fiction.
The works in this genre that described included Patrick Bokanowski 's film, The Angel , Terry Gilliam's film, Brazil and the science fiction film noir , Dark City.
The films from the other genres which are similarly described included The Tenant and Barton Fink However, with common usage, the term became so ubiquitous that Kafka's scholars noted that it was often misused.
A major component of the museum was an exhibit The City of K. Franz Kafka a Praha City K. Kafka and Prague and aimed to immerse the visitor into the world which Kafka lived and about what he wrote.
It recognized the merits of literature as "humanistic character and contribution to cultural, national, language and religious tolerance, it's existential, timeless character, it's generally human validity and it's ability to hand over a testimony about our times".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Kafka disambiguation. Austria Czechoslovakia  . Novelist short story writer insurance officer.
Further information on Franz Kafka and Judaism: Franz Kafka and Judaism. Further information on Franz Kafka's bibliography: Forum for Modern Language Studies.
Simon and Schuster Paperbacks. Kafka, New Jewish Cemetery , Prague: At the age of five, Schubert began to receive regular instruction from his father, and a year later was enrolled at his father's school.
Although it is not exactly known when Schubert received his first musical instruction, he was given piano lessons by his brother Ignaz, but they lasted for a very short time as Schubert excelled him within a few months.
Schubert wrote his earliest string quartets for this ensemble. Young Schubert first came to the attention of Antonio Salieri , then Vienna's leading musical authority, in , when his vocal talent was recognised.
At the Stadtkonvikt, he was introduced to the overtures and symphonies of Mozart , the symphonies of Joseph Haydn and his younger brother Michael Haydn , and the overtures and symphonies of Beethoven , a composer he developed a significant admiration for.
The precocious young student "wanted to modernize" Zumsteeg's songs, as reported by Joseph von Spaun , Schubert's friend. In those early days, the financially well-off Spaun furnished the impoverished Schubert with much of his manuscript paper.
In the meantime, Schubert's genius began to show in his compositions. The boy was occasionally permitted to lead the Stadtkonvikt's orchestra, and Salieri decided to start training him privately in music theory and even in composition.
At the end of , Schubert left the Stadtkonvikt and returned home for teacher training at the St Anna Normal- hauptschule. In , he entered his father's school as teacher of the youngest pupils.
For over two years young Schubert endured severe drudgery;  there were, however, compensatory interests even then.
He continued to take private lessons in composition from Salieri, who gave Schubert more actual technical training than any of his other teachers, before they parted ways in In , Schubert met a young soprano named Therese Grob , daughter of a local silk manufacturer, and wrote several of his liturgical works including a "Salve Regina" and a "Tantum Ergo" for her; she was also a soloist in the premiere of his Mass No.
One of Schubert's most prolific years was He composed over 20, bars of music, more than half of which was for orchestra, including nine church works despite being agnostic ,   a symphony, and about Lieder.
Another friend, Johann Mayrhofer , was introduced to him by Spaun in Throughout , Schubert lived with his father at home; his mother died in He continued to teach at the school and give private musical instruction, earning enough money for his basic needs, including clothing, manuscript paper, pens, and ink, but with little to no money left over for luxuries.
This was probably Schubert's first visit away from home or school. The musicologist Maynard Solomon has suggested that Schubert was erotically attracted to men,  a thesis that has, at times, been heatedly debated.
Significant changes happened in Schober, a student and of good family and some means, invited Schubert to room with him at his mother's house.
The proposal was particularly opportune, for Schubert had just made the unsuccessful application for the post of kapellmeister at Laibach, and he had also decided not to resume teaching duties at his father's school.
By the end of the year, he became a guest in Schober's lodgings. In early , Schober introduced Schubert to Johann Michael Vogl , a prominent baritone twenty years Schubert's senior.
Vogl, for whom Schubert went on to write a great many songs, became one of Schubert's main proponents in Viennese musical circles.
Schubert also met Joseph Hüttenbrenner brother of Anselm , who also played a role in promoting his music. In late , Schubert's father gained a new position at a school in Rossau , not far from Lichtental.
Schubert rejoined his father and reluctantly took up teaching duties there. In early , he applied for membership in the prestigious Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde , intending to gain admission as an accompanist, but also so that his music, especially the songs, could be performed in the evening concerts.
He was rejected on the basis that he was "no amateur", although he had been employed as a schoolteacher at the time and there were professional musicians already among the society's membership.
The pay was relatively good, and his duties teaching piano and singing to the two daughters were relatively light, allowing him to compose happily.
Schubert may have written his Marche Militaire in D major D. During the early s, Schubert was part of a close-knit circle of artists and students who had social gatherings together that became known as Schubertiads.
The tight circle of friends with which Schubert surrounded himself was dealt a blow in early Schubert and four of his friends were arrested by the Austrian police, who in the aftermath of the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars were on their guard against revolutionary activities and suspicious of any gathering of youth or students.
One of Schubert's friends, Johann Senn , was put on trial, imprisoned for over a year, and then permanently forbidden to enter Vienna.
The other four, including Schubert, were "severely reprimanded", in part for "inveighing against [officials] with insulting and opprobrious language".
The incident may have played a role in a falling-out with Mayrhofer, with whom he was living at the time. Schubert, who was only a little more than five feet tall,  was nicknamed "Schwammerl" by his friends, which Gibbs describes as translating to "Tubby" or "Little Mushroom".
The compositions of and show a marked advance in development and maturity of style. In , two of Schubert's operas were staged: Now he began to assume a more prominent position, addressing a wider public.
The production of the two operas turned Schubert's attention more firmly than ever in the direction of the stage, where, for a variety of reasons, he was almost completely unsuccessful.
All in all, he embarked on twenty stage projects, each of them failures which were quickly forgotten. In , Alfonso und Estrella was refused, partly owing to its libretto written by Schubert's friend Franz von Schober.
Domenico Barbaia , impresario for the court theatres, largely lost interest in new German opera due to the popularity of Rossini and the Italian operatic style, and the failure of Carl Maria von Weber 's Euryanthe.
Despite his operatic failures, Schubert's reputation was growing steadily on other fronts. In , the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde finally accepted him as a performing member, and the amount of performances of his music grew remarkably.
In , Schubert made the acquaintance of both Weber and Beethoven , but little came of it in either case: On his deathbed, Beethoven is said to have looked into some of the younger man's works and exclaimed: Despite his preoccupation with the stage, and later with his official duties, Schubert found time during these years for a significant amount of composition.
He completed the Mass in A-flat major , D. Also in that year, symptoms of syphilis first appeared. In , he wrote the Variations in E minor for flute and piano Trockne Blumen , a song from the cycle Die schöne Müllerin , and several string quartets.
He also wrote the Sonata in A minor for arpeggione and piano D. In love with a Countess of youthful grace, —A pupil of Galt's; in desperate case Young Schubert surrenders himself to another, And fain would avoid such affectionate pother .
The setbacks of previous years were compensated by the prosperity and happiness of Publication had been moving more rapidly, the stress of poverty was for a time lightened, and in the summer he had a pleasant holiday in Upper Austria where he was welcomed with enthusiasm.
The original only opens with the greeting "Ave Maria", which also recurs only in the refrain. From to , Schubert resided continuously in Vienna, except for a brief visit to Graz , Austria, in In , he dedicated a symphony D.
Later in the year came the String Quartet No. He also produced in three Shakespearian songs, of which " Ständchen " D. The works of his last two years reveal a composer entering a new professional and compositional stage.
In , Schubert wrote the song cycle Winterreise D. The orchestra of the Gesellschaft reportedly read through the symphony at a rehearsal, but never scheduled a public performance of it.
The reasons continue to be unknown, although the difficulty of the symphony is the possible explanation. On 26 March , the anniversary of Beethoven's death, Schubert gave, for the only time in his career, a public concert of his own works.
In the midst of this creative activity, his health deteriorated. By the late s, Schubert's health was failing and he confided to some friends that he feared that he was near death.
In the late summer of , the composer saw the physician Ernst Rinna, who may have confirmed Schubert's suspicions that he was ill beyond cure and likely to die soon.
He was generally unable to retain solid food and his condition worsened. Five days before Schubert's death, his friend, violinist Karl Holz , and his string quartet visited him to play for him.
The last musical work he had wished to hear was Beethoven's String Quartet No. Schubert died in Vienna, aged 31, on 19 November , at the apartment of his brother Ferdinand.
The cause of his death was officially diagnosed as typhoid fever , though other theories have been proposed, including the tertiary stage of syphilis.
In , a memorial to Franz Schubert was erected in Vienna's Stadtpark. His epitaph, written by his friend, the poet Franz Grillparzer , reads: Schubert was remarkably prolific, writing over 1, works in his short career.
His compositional style progressed rapidly throughout his short life. Schubert also composed a considerable number of secular works for two or more voices, namely part songs , choruses and cantatas.
He completed eight orchestral overtures and seven complete symphonies, in addition to fragments of six others. While he composed no concertos, he did write three concertante works for violin and orchestra.
Schubert wrote a large body of music for solo piano, including fourteen completed sonatas, numerous miscellaneous works and many short dances, in addition to producing a large set of works for piano four hands.
He also wrote over fifty chamber works, including some fragmentary works. Schubert's sacred output includes seven masses, one oratorio and one requiem, among other mass movements and numerous smaller compositions.
In July the Austrian composer Ernst Krenek discussed Schubert's style, abashedly admitting that he had at first "shared the wide-spread opinion that Schubert was a lucky inventor of pleasing tunes Bach or Beethoven ".
Krenek wrote that he reached a completely different assessment after close study of Schubert's pieces at the urging of his friend and fellow composer Eduard Erdmann.
Krenek pointed to the piano sonatas as giving "ample evidence that [Schubert] was much more than an easy-going tune-smith who did not know, and did not care, about the craft of composition.
That "appetite for experimentation" manifests itself repeatedly in Schubert's output in a wide variety of forms and genres, including opera, liturgical music , chamber and solo piano music, and symphonic works.
Perhaps most familiarly, his adventurousness manifests itself as a notably original sense of modulation, as in the second movement of the String Quintet D.
Although Schubert was clearly influenced by the Classical sonata forms of Beethoven and Mozart , his formal structures and his developments tend to give the impression more of melodic development than of harmonic drama.
It was in the genre of the Lied that Schubert made his most indelible mark. Leon Plantinga remarks that "in his more than six hundred Lieder he explored and expanded the potentialities of the genre, as no composer before him.
Of additional particular note are his two song cycles on the poems of Wilhelm Müller , Die schöne Müllerin and Winterreise , which helped to establish the genre and its potential for musical, poetic, and almost operatic dramatic narrative.
His last collection of songs published in after his death, Schwanengesang , is also an innovative contribution to German lieder literature, as it features poems by different poets, namely Ludwig Rellstab , Heine, and Johann Gabriel Seidl.
The Wiener Theaterzeitung , writing about Winterreise at the time, commented that it was a work that "none can sing or hear without being deeply moved".
When Schubert died he had around opus numbers published, mainly songs, chamber music and smaller piano compositions.
An important step towards the recovery of the neglected works was the journey to Vienna which the music historian George Grove and the composer Arthur Sullivan made in October The travellers unearthed the manuscripts of six of the symphonies, parts of the incidental music to Rosamunde , the Mass No.
With these discoveries, Grove and Sullivan were able to inform the public of the existence of these works; in addition, they were able to copy the fourth and sixth symphonies, the Rosamunde incidental music, and the overture to Die Freunde von Salamanka.
Since relatively few of Schubert's works were published in his lifetime, only a small number of them have opus numbers assigned, and even in those cases, the sequence of the numbers does not give a good indication of the order of composition.
Austrian musicologist Otto Erich Deutsch — is known for compiling the first comprehensive catalogue of Schubert's works.
This was first published in English in Schubert Thematic Catalogue and subsequently revised for a new edition in German in Franz Schubert: Thematic Catalogue of his Works in Chronological Order.
Confusion arose quite early over the numbering of Schubert's late symphonies. An even broader confusion arose over the numbering of the piano sonatas , with numbering systems ranging from 15 to 23 sonatas.
A feeling of regret for the loss of potential masterpieces caused by his early death at age 31 was expressed in the epitaph on his large tombstone written by Grillparzer: For instance, Robert Schumann said: He did enough; and let them be honoured who have striven and accomplished as he did.
The Schubertbund quickly became a rallying point for schoolteachers and other members of the Viennese middle class who felt increasingly embattled during the Gründerzeit and the aftermath of the Panic of Schubert's chamber music continues to be popular.
In a survey conducted by the ABC Classic FM radio station in , Schubert's chamber works dominated the field, with the Trout Quintet ranked first, the String Quintet in C major ranked second, and the Notturno in E-flat major for piano trio ranked third.