The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or Mancunium , which was established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell.
It was historically a part of Lancashire , although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated in the 20th century. The first to be included, Wythenshawe , was added to the city in Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township , but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century.
Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution ,  and resulted in it becoming the world's first industrialised city.
Manchester achieved city status in Its fortune declined after the Second World War , owing to deindustrialisation , but the IRA bombing in led to extensive investment and regeneration.
In , the Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city , the highest-ranked British city apart from London.
Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the world's first inter-city passenger railway station ; scientists first split the atom , developed the stored-program computer and produced graphene in the city.
Manchester hosted the Commonwealth Games. These are generally thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name , either from mamm- " breast ", in reference to a " breast-like hill " or from mamma " mother ", in reference to a local river goddess.
Both meanings are preserved in Insular Celtic languages , such as mam meaning "breast" in Irish and "mother" in Welsh. The Brigantes were the major Celtic tribe in what is now known as Northern England ; they had a stronghold in the locality at a sandstone outcrop on which Manchester Cathedral now stands, opposite the banks of the River Irwell.
Following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, General Agricola ordered the construction of a fort named Mamucium in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in Deva Victrix Chester and Eboracum York were protected from the Brigantes.
The Roman habitation of Manchester probably ended around the 3rd century; its civilian settlement appears to have been abandoned by the mid-3rd century, although the fort may have supported a small garrison until the late 3rd or early 4th century.
Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor , founded and constructed a collegiate church for the parish in Manchester is mentioned as having a market in Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP.
Charles Worsley , who sat for the city for only a year, was later appointed Major General for Lancashire, Cheshire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals.
He was a diligent puritan , turning out ale houses and banning the celebration of Christmas; he died in The Bridgewater Canal , Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in , bringing coal from mines at Worsley to central Manchester.
The canal was extended to the Mersey at Runcorn by The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved the cost of coal and halved the transport cost of raw cotton.
In , Richard Arkwright began construction of Manchester's first cotton mill. Manchester's history is concerned with textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution.
The great majority of cotton spinning took place in the towns of south Lancashire and north Cheshire, and Manchester was for a time the most productive centre of cotton processing,  and later the world's largest marketplace for cotton goods.
Manchester began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as people flocked to the city for work from Scotland, Wales, Ireland and other areas of England as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by the Industrial Revolution.
Similarly, the chemical industry started by producing bleaches and dyes, but expanded into other areas. Commerce was supported by financial service industries such as banking and insurance.
Trade, and feeding the growing population, required a large transport and distribution infrastructure: Competition between the various forms of transport kept costs down.
This enabled oceangoing ships to sail right into the Port of Manchester. On the canal's banks, just outside the borough, the world's first industrial estate was created at Trafford Park.
A centre of capitalism, Manchester was once the scene of bread and labour riots, as well as calls for greater political recognition by the city's working and non-titled classes.
One such gathering ended with the Peterloo Massacre of 16 August The economic school of Manchester capitalism developed there, and Manchester was the centre of the Anti-Corn Law League from onward.
Manchester has a notable place in the history of Marxism and left-wing politics; being the subject of Friedrich Engels ' work The Condition of the Working Class in England in ; Engels spent much of his life in and around Manchester,  and when Karl Marx visited Manchester, they met at Chetham's Library.
The economics books Marx was reading at the time can be seen in the library, as can the window seat where Marx and Engels would meet.
Manchester was an important cradle of the Labour Party and the Suffragette Movement. At that time, it seemed a place in which anything could happen—new industrial processes, new ways of thinking the Manchester School , promoting free trade and laissez-faire , new classes or groups in society, new religious sects, and new forms of labour organisation.
It attracted educated visitors from all parts of Britain and Europe. A saying capturing this sense of innovation survives today: Many of the great public buildings including Manchester Town Hall date from then.
In , when county councils were created in England, the municipal borough became a county borough with even greater autonomy. Although the Industrial Revolution brought wealth to the city, it also brought poverty and squalor to a large part of the population.
Historian Simon Schama noted that "Manchester was the very best and the very worst taken to terrifying extremes, a new kind of city in the world; the chimneys of industrial suburbs greeting you with columns of smoke".
An American visitor taken to Manchester's blackspots saw "wretched, defrauded, oppressed, crushed human nature, lying and bleeding fragments".
The number of cotton mills in Manchester itself reached a peak of in Cotton processing in other parts of the world increased, often on machines produced in Manchester.
Manchester suffered greatly from the Great Depression and the underlying structural changes that began to supplant the old industries, including textile manufacture.
For example, casting and machining expertise at Beyer, Peacock and Company 's locomotive works in Gorton was switched to bomb making; Dunlop 's rubber works in Chorlton-on-Medlock made barrage balloons ; and just outside the city in Trafford Park , engineers Metropolitan-Vickers made Avro Manchester and Avro Lancaster bombers and Ford built the Rolls-Royce Merlin engines to power them.
Manchester was thus the target of bombing by the Luftwaffe , and by late air raids were taking place against non-military targets.
A large part of the historic city centre was destroyed, including warehouses, business premises, and offices. Cotton processing and trading continued to fall in peacetime, and the exchange closed in Traffic declined, and the port closed in Manchester lost , jobs in manufacturing between and Regeneration began in the late s, with initiatives such as the Metrolink , the Bridgewater Concert Hall , the Manchester Arena , and in Salford the rebranding of the port as Salford Quays.
Two bids to host the Olympic Games were part of a process to raise the international profile of the city.
Manchester has a history of attacks attributed to Irish Republicans, including the Manchester Martyrs of , arson in , a series of explosions in , and two bombs in On Saturday 15 June , the Provisional Irish Republican Army IRA carried out the Manchester bombing , the detonation of a large bomb next to a department store in the city centre.
Spurred by the investment after the bomb, and aided by the XVII Commonwealth Games , Manchester's city centre has undergone extensive regeneration.
The Manchester Arndale is the UK's largest city centre shopping centre. Large sections of the city dating from the s have been either demolished and re-developed or modernised with the use of glass and steel.
Old mills have been converted into modern apartments, Hulme has undergone extensive regeneration programmes, and million-pound lofthouse apartments have since been developed.
The metre tall, storey Beetham Tower , completed in , is the tallest building in the UK outside London and when finished was the highest residential accommodation in Europe.
Since around the turn of the 21st century, Manchester has been regarded by sections of the international press,  British public,  and government ministers as being the second city of the United Kingdom.
The Greater Manchester Combined Authority , with a directly elected mayor , has responsibilities for economic strategy and transport, amongst other areas, on a Greater Manchester-wide basis.
Manchester has been a member of the English Core Cities Group since its inception in The town of Manchester was granted a charter by Thomas Grelley in , but lost its borough status in a court case of Until the 19th century local government was largely in the hands of manorial courts , the last of which was dissolved in From a very early time , the township of Manchester lay within the historic or ceremonial county boundaries of Lancashire.
Manchester later formed its own Poor Law Union using the name "Manchester". Manchester regained its borough status in , and comprised the townships of Beswick , Cheetham Hill , Chorlton upon Medlock and Hulme.
In , Manchester was granted "city status" in the United Kingdom. In , the city became a county borough as did many larger Lancashire towns, and therefore not governed by Lancashire County Council.
In November , it was announced that Greater Manchester would receive a new directly elected Mayor.
The Mayor would have fiscal control over health, transport, housing and police in the area. The city centre is on the east bank of the River Irwell , near its confluences with the Rivers Medlock and Irk , and is relatively low-lying, being between 35 to 42 metres to feet above sea level.
Much of the inner city, especially in the south, is flat, offering extensive views from many highrise buildings in the city of the foothills and moors of the Pennines, which can often be capped with snow in the winter months.
Manchester's geographic features were highly influential in its early development as the world's first industrial city. These features are its climate, its proximity to a seaport at Liverpool , the availability of water power from its rivers, and its nearby coal reserves.
The name Manchester, though officially applied only to the metropolitan district within Greater Manchester, has been applied to other, wider divisions of land, particularly across much of the Greater Manchester county and urban area.
For purposes of the Office for National Statistics , Manchester forms the most populous settlement within the Greater Manchester Urban Area , the United Kingdom's third-largest conurbation.
There is a mixture of high-density urban and suburban locations in Manchester. The largest open space in the city, at around hectares acres ,  is Heaton Park.
Manchester is contiguous on all sides with several large settlements, except for a small section along its southern boundary with Cheshire. The M60 and M56 motorways pass through the south of Manchester, through Northenden and Wythenshawe respectively.
Heavy rail lines enter the city from all directions, the principal destination being Manchester Piccadilly station. Manchester experiences a temperate Oceanic climate , like much of the British Isles, with mild summers and cool winters.
Summer daytime temperatures regularly top 20 Celsius, typically reaching 25 Celsius on sunny days throughout July and August in particular.
In more recent years, temperatures now reach over 30 Celsius on occasions. There is regular but generally light precipitation throughout the year.
The city's average annual rainfall is Manchester lies at the centre of a green belt region that extends into the wider surrounding counties, which is in place to reduce urban sprawl, prevent the towns in the conurbation from further convergence, protect the identity of outlying communities, and preserve nearby countryside.
This is achieved by restricting inappropriate development within the designated areas, and imposing stricter conditions on permitted building.
Racial structure, according to the census . Religious beliefs, according to the census . Historically the population of Manchester began to increase rapidly during the Victorian era , peaking at , in From then the population began to decrease rapidly, due to slum clearance and the increased building of social housing overspill estates by Manchester City Council after the Second World War such as Hattersley and Langley.
The Mid-Year Estimate for the population of Manchester was , This was an increase of 7,, or 1. Since , the population has grown by 87,, or Manchester was the third fastest-growing of the areas in the census.
This represents a slower rate of growth than the previous decade. The Greater Manchester Built-up Area had a population of 2,, est.
An estimated 2,, people live in Greater Manchester est. Between the beginning of July and end of June Mid-Year Estimate date , births exceeded deaths by 4, Migration internal and international and other changes accounted for a net increase of 3, people between July and June Compared to Greater Manchester and England, Manchester has a younger population, with a particularly large 20—35 age group.
The proportion of people with no religious affiliation increased by Manchester has a disproportionately high number of gay and lesbian people.
In terms of ethnic composition , the City of Manchester has the highest non-white proportion of any district in Greater Manchester.
Statistics from the census showed that The area also attracts large numbers of Chinese students to the city who, in attending the local universities,  contribute to Manchester having the third-largest Chinese population in Europe.
The Manchester Larger Urban Zone , a Eurostat measure of the functional city-region approximated to local government districts, has a population of 2,, in The economy grew relatively strongly between and , where growth was 2.
As the UK economy continues to recover from the downturn experienced in —10, Manchester compares favourably to other geographies according to the latest figures.
Manchester's civic leadership has a reputation for business acumen. KPMG's competitive alternative report also found that Manchester was Europe's most affordable city featured, ranking slightly better than Dutch cities, Rotterdam and Amsterdam , who all have a cost of living index less than Manchester is a city of contrast, where some of the country's most deprived and most affluent neighbourhoods can be found.
Women fare better in Manchester than the rest of the country in terms of equal pay to men. The per hours worked gender pay gap is 3.
Manchester has the largest UK office market outside London according to GVA Grimley with a quarterly office uptake averaged over —14 of approximately , square ft — equivalent to the quarterly office uptake of Leeds , Liverpool and Newcastle combined and 90, square feet more than the nearest rival Birmingham.
Manchester's buildings display a variety of architectural styles, ranging from Victorian to contemporary architecture. The widespread use of red brick characterises the city, much of the architecture of which harks back to its days as a global centre for the cotton trade.
Manchester Town Hall , in Albert Square , was built in the Gothic revival style and is considered to be one of the most important Victorian buildings in England.
It remains the tallest building outside London and has been described as the United Kingdom's only true skyscraper outside the capital. Two large squares hold many of Manchester's public monuments.
The cenotaph in St Peter's Square is Manchester's main memorial to its war dead; designed by Edwin Lutyens , it follows his design for the original on Whitehall in London.
Manchester Liverpool Road was the world's first purpose-built passenger and goods railway station,  and served as the Manchester terminus on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway — the world's first inter-city passenger railway.
Today the city is well served by the rail network,  and is at the centre of an extensive countywide railway network, including the West Coast Main Line , with two mainline stations: Manchester Piccadilly and Manchester Victoria.
Manchester became the first city in the UK to acquire a modern light rail tram system when the Manchester Metrolink opened in The city has one of the most extensive bus networks outside London with over 50 bus companies operating in the Greater Manchester region radiating from the city.
The airport is the third busiest in the United Kingdom and the largest outside the London region. Airline services exist to many destinations in Europe, North America, the Caribbean , Africa, the Middle East and Asia with more destinations from Manchester than any other airport in Britain.
The airport has the highest rating available: A smaller airfield, City Airport Manchester , also exists 9. It was Manchester's first municipal airport , and became the site of the first Air traffic control tower in the UK, and the first municipal airfield in the UK to be licensed by the Air Ministry.
An extensive canal network, including the Manchester Ship Canal , was built to carry freight from the Industrial Revolution onward; the canals are still maintained, though now largely repurposed to leisure use.
Previously, notable Manchester acts of the s include The Hollies , Herman's Hermits , and Davy Jones of the Monkees famed in the mids for not only their albums but also their American TV show and the earlier Bee Gees , who grew up in Chorlton.
Singer-songwriter Ren Harvieu is also from Greater Manchester. Its main pop music venue is the Manchester Arena , which was voted "International Venue of the Year" in There is also a chamber orchestra , the Manchester Camerata.
Manchester is a centre for musical education, with the Royal Northern College of Music , which celebrates its 40th Anniversary since its merger, and Chetham's School of Music.
Brass band music, a tradition in the north of England, is an important part of Manchester's musical heritage;  some of the UK's leading bands, such as the CWS Manchester Band and the Fairey Band , are from Manchester and surrounding areas, and the Whit Friday brass band contest takes place annually in the neighbouring areas of Saddleworth and Tameside.
Manchester has a thriving theatre, opera and dance scene, and is home to a number of large performance venues, including the Manchester Opera House , which feature large-scale touring shows and West End productions; the Palace Theatre ; and the Royal Exchange Theatre in Manchester's former cotton exchange, the largest theatre in the round space in the UK.
Smaller performance spaces include the Contact Theatre and Z-arts in Hulme. The Dancehouse on Oxford Road is dedicated to dance productions. Housing two theatre spaces, five cinemas and an art exhibition space, it replaced the Cornerhouse and The Library Theatre.
Since the city has hosted the Manchester International Festival , a biennial international arts festival with a specific focus on original new work, which has included major new commissions by artists including Bjork.
Manchester's museums celebrate Manchester's Roman history, rich industrial heritage and its role in the Industrial Revolution , the textile industry , the Trade Union movement, women's suffrage and football.
A reconstructed part of the Roman fort of Mamucium is open to the public in Castlefield. The Museum of Science and Industry , housed in the former Liverpool Road railway station , has a large collection of steam locomotives , industrial machinery, aircraft and a replica of the world's first stored computer program known as the Manchester Baby.
The municipally owned Manchester Art Gallery on Mosley Street houses a permanent collection of European painting, and has one of Britain's most significant collections of Pre-Raphaelite paintings.
In the south of the city, the Whitworth Art Gallery displays modern art, sculpture and textiles and was recently voted Museum of the Year in The works of Stretford -born painter L.
Lowry , known for his "matchstick" paintings of industrial Manchester and Salford, can be seen in both the city and Whitworth Manchester galleries, and at the Lowry art centre in Salford Quays in the neighbouring borough of Salford devotes a large permanent exhibition to his works.
These included Elizabeth Gaskell 's novel Mary Barton: The library was founded in and lays claim to being the oldest public library in the English-speaking world.
Elsewhere in the city, the John Rylands Library holds an extensive collection of early printing. The Rylands Library Papyrus P52 , believed to be the earliest extant New Testament text, is on permanent display in the library.
Charles Dickens is reputed to have set his novel Hard Times in the city, and while it is partly modelled on Preston , it shows the influence of his friend Mrs Gaskell.
Anthony Burgess is among the 20th century writers who made Manchester their home, he wrote the dystopian satire A Clockwork Orange in John Cooper Clarke the performance poet who first became famous during the punk rock era of the late s when he became known as a "punk poet" grew up here.
The night-time economy of Manchester has expanded significantly since about , with investment from breweries in bars, public houses and clubs, along with active support from the local authorities.
Many of the big clubs suffered problems with organised crime at that time; Haslam describes one where staff were so completely intimidated that free admission and drinks were demanded and given and drugs were openly dealt.
In , Manchester was often referred to as Madchester for its rave scene. Known for developing many talented s influential acts, it also influenced the graphic design industry via Factory artists such as Peter Saville PSA , Octavo 8vo , Central Design Station, etc.
The memorabilia from this club holds a high value among collectors and fans of these artists and the club. Peter Saville was most notable for his minimalistic influence that still affects contemporary graphic design everywhere.
Since the opening of new bars and clubs, the area attracts 20, visitors each weekend  and has hosted a popular festival, Manchester Pride , each August since There are three universities in the City of Manchester.
The University of Manchester is the largest full-time non-collegiate university in the United Kingdom and was created in by the merger of Victoria University of Manchester founded in and UMIST , founded in ,  though the university's logo appears to claim it was established in Manchester Metropolitan University was formed as Manchester Polytechnic on the merger of three colleges in The three Universities are grouped around Oxford Road on the southern side of the city centre, which forms Europe's largest urban higher education precinct.
One of Manchester's most notable secondary schools is the Manchester Grammar School. Established in ,  as a free grammar school next to what is now the Cathedral, it moved in to Old Hall Lane in Fallowfield, south Manchester, to accommodate the growing student body.
In the post-war period, it was a direct grant grammar school i. There are three schools nearby: The LEA also had the highest occurrence of absences, with Manchester is well known for being a city of sport.
The City of Manchester Stadium was initially built as the main athletics stadium for the Commonwealth Games and was subsequently reconfigured into a football stadium before Manchester City's arrival.
Manchester has hosted domestic, continental and international football competitions at Fallowfield Stadium , Maine Road , Old Trafford and the City of Manchester Stadium.
The Manchester Velodrome was built as a part of the bid for the games and has become a catalyst for British success in cycling.
Manchester also hosted the World Squash Championships in ,  and also hosted the World Lacrosse Championship in July Although its influence has waned Granada had been described as 'the best commercial television company in the world'.
Manchester was one of the BBC 's three main centres in England. Quays News and Manchester. The city will also have a new terrestrial channel from January when YourTV Manchester, who won the OFCOM licence bid in February begins its first broadcast but in when That's Manchester took over to air on 31 May and launched on the freeview channel 8 service slot before moving to channel 7 in April The Guardian newspaper was founded in as The Manchester Guardian.
Its head office is still in the city, though many of its management functions were moved to London in The paper is free in the city centre on Thursdays and Fridays, but paid for in the suburbs.
Despite its title, it is available all day. The MEN group distributes several local weekly free papers. At its height, 1, journalists were employed, though in the s office closures began and today the "second Fleet Street" is no more.
Manchester has formal twinning arrangements or "friendship agreements" with several places. Manchester is home to the largest group of consuls in the UK outside London.
The expansion of international trade links during the Industrial Revolution led to the introduction of the first consuls in the s and since then over , from all parts of the world, have been based in Manchester.
Manchester hosts consular services for most of the north of England. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city of Manchester in England.
For the larger conurbation, see Greater Manchester Built-up Area. For the wider metropolitan county, see Greater Manchester.
For other uses, see Manchester disambiguation. City and Metropolitan borough in England, United Kingdom. Shown within Greater Manchester.
Timeline of Manchester history. Manchester from Kersal Moor , by William Wyld in , a view now dominated by chimney stacks as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution.
Politics in Manchester and Manchester City Council. Geography of Greater Manchester. North West Green Belt.
Demography of Greater Manchester. Religion Not Stated 6. List of companies based in Greater Manchester. List of people from Manchester.
Popular music of Manchester , List of music artists and bands from Manchester , and Madchester. List of schools in Manchester. List of television programmes set, produced or filmed in Manchester ; Films set in Manchester ; and List of national radio programmes made in Manchester.
Retrieved 24 July Retrieved 27 August Retrieved 7 November Retrieved 25 March Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 16 July Retrieved 10 April The historical evolution of the Greater Manchester County.
Entry on Sciencemuseum website. Archived from the original on 9 March Retrieved 17 March The IRA bomb in Manchester Archived from the original on 17 August Globalization and World Cities Research Network.
Retrieved 21 May A Dictionary of British Place-Names. The Breedon Books Publishing Company. The University of Manchester's Excavations within the Vicus —5.
A History of Manchester. Stockport Metropolitan Borough Council. Curiosities of Greater Manchester. Gazetteer of Markets and Fairs in England and Wales to City will book their place in the knockout phase if they beat Shakhtar and Lyon triumph against Hoffenheim.
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